Core Stability

The core is where the most of the body’s power is derived. It provides the foundation for
all movements of the arms and legs. The core must be strong, have dynamic flexibility
and function synergistically in its movements in order to achieve maximum performance.

  • Motion of the human body is not isolated to one muscle or tissue moving in one specific
    direction. Rather, it is a complex event involving agonists and antagonist structures that
    work together to create changes in position and/or location, and to stabilize the body in
    all three directional planes. Regardless of what sport one plays, it is essential to have core strength and trunk stability to maximize performance and prevent injury.

What Makes Up the Core
The foundation of the core is much more than the abdominal muscles. It includes
muscles deep within the torso, from the pelvis up to the neck and shoulders. The core
includes the following structures:

  • Multifidus – deep spinal muscles that run segmentally from the neck (C2) to the
    sacrum. They produce extension and, to a lesser degree, rotation and lateral
    flexion forces that provide stability to joints at individual levels of the spine.
  • Interspinales, Intertransversarii, Rotatores – deep structures that attach
    directly to the spinal column. These are very important for rotatory motion and
    lateral stability.
  • External Obliques – abdominal muscles that attaches at the lower ribs, pelvis,
    and abdominal fascia.
  • Internal Obliques – abdominal muscles that attaches at the lower ribs, rectus
    sheath, pelvis and thoracolumbar fascia.
  • Transversus Abdominis – abdominal muscles that attaches at the lower ribs,
    pelvis and thoracolumbar fascia, and rectus sheath.

These abdominal muscles work together to transmit a compressive force, and act to increase intra-abdominal pressure that stabilizes the lumbar spine. They also work individually to perform trunk rotation, while the internal and external obliques on the same side can work together, or synergistically, to laterally flex the spine.
Rectus abdominis- abdominal muscle that attaches at the fifth through seventh ribs, the lower sternum and the front of the pubic bone. This muscle flexes the spine, compresses the internal organs of the abdomen and transmits forces laterally from the obliques. It is a common fallacy that the upper and lower rectus are isolated differently. Training the rectus can be done with one exercise.
Erector Spinae – help to counterbalance all the forces involved in spinal flexion. They begin as the sacrospinalis tendon that attaches at the sacrum and ilium. This tendon then gives rise to different muscles that run up the spine and obliquely to attach at lateral parts of the vertebrae and the ribs. In the cervical region, these muscles attach at the base of the skull.
Quadratus Lumborum – attaches at the 12th rib and the upper 4 lumbar vertebrae and the pelvis. It stabilizes the lumbar spine in all planes of motion, stabilizes the 12th rib and the attachment of the diaphragm during respiration and laterally flexes the trunk.
Latissimus Dorsi – this is the largest spinal stabilizer. It attaches via the thoracolumbar fascia to the lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and pelvis, and runs upward to the humerus. It assists in lumbar extension and stabilization, and also performs pulling motions through the arms.
Thoracolumbar Fascia – connects the latissimus dorsi, gluteal muscles, internal obliques and transverse abdominis, supplies tensile support to the lumbar spine, and is used for load transfer throughout the lumbar and thoracic regions.
Abdominal Fascia – connects to the obliques and rectus abdominis, and to the pectoralis major. Fascial connections that cross the midline transmit forces to the muscles of the opposite side of the body.

Training the Core
The common myth is that training the core simply involves sit ups and back extensions.
An efficient core routine consists of multiplanar movements – training in all planes of
motion. As the body moves, the center of gravity changes, and forces exerted by, and on,
the body’s tissues are constantly changing. Dynamic stabilization must be included to
increase proprioception and stability in the trunk, as well as in the rest of the body. This
allows the parts of the body to react efficiently to external forces and stresses, such as
gravity, changes in terrain, and carrying loads, as well as the internal forces exerted by
other muscles.

Dynamic stability is best achieved through training in functionally practical positions that mimic activities or movements in one’s particular sport, or in life as a whole. With this in mind, one can conclude that most core training that is done while sitting or lying down and limiting pelvic movement has little functional value. Medicine balls, balance boards and stability balls are great tools for core training and should be integrated into every program. Core exercises should include strengthening, as well as challenges such as standing one-legged and/or two-legged on stable and unstable surfaces, reacting to external forces such as a partner’s light push or the catching and throwing of a medicine ball, and moving the joints of the body through all planes of motion.

The goal of functional core training is to develop in the core a system of efficient
automatic responses to work as a stable base from which to generate optimal force and
motion.

Postural Distortion and Biomechanical Dysfunction
Consider how the chronic shortening of just one muscle, which happens to be a core
muscle, can impede performance and cause imbalances that lead to injuries. The rectus abdominis is a good example of an over worked muscle. As this muscle is overworked, the other core muscles are often ignored. Crunches, leg raises and exercises using abdominal machines all work only in the sagital plane, therefore limiting “benefit”
to muscles that produce hip and trunk flexion. (Note that repetitive trunk flexion places
increased injury-causing stress on the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine). It is
imperative to train the core in a multi-planar fashion, especially the transverse plane, in
order to create stabilization in the trunk, and in effect more optimal posture, strength and motion in the entire body. The following is a common example of the result of
overworking the rectus abdominis. A tight rectus abdominis, when creating tension, or pull, on its upper and lower attachments, including the anterior pelvis, anterior ribs and inferior sternum, produces a flexion force in the trunk. This has consequences beyond the immediate structures affected.

These consequences include a chain of effects that begin with shortening and tightening
of the pectoral muscles. These muscles will exert an inferior tension on the clavicle,
superior ribs, and the anterior scapula and will assist in internally rotating the humerus.
The force of gravity also contributes to the internal rotation of the glenohumeral, or
shoulder joint, as the trunk flexes forward. Internal rotation of the humerus tensions and lengthens the external rotators of the shoulder which in combination with the tension exerted on the anterior scapula by the pecs, will bring the scapula into protraction, lengthening and weakening the middle and lower trapezius, and rhomboid muscles. (Note that a tight latissimus dorsi can also be a primary contributor to internal rotation of the humerus.) The internally rotated humerus and protracted scapula will place the rotator cuff muscles at a biomechanical disadvantage in dynamically stabilizing the glenohumeral joint. The cuff will not function effectively, increasing the risk of injury. The reaction of the cervical spine is two-fold. The lower segments of the cervical spine follow the forward and downward movement of the trunk, and they themselves flex, causing lengthening and weakening of the deep cervical flexor muscles. (This can also stress the outer layer of the intervertebral discs, which over time, may lead to injury.) Naturally, if the lower cervical spine flexes forward, the head will follow, and if this force is not countered, gravity will cause the head to fall forward. In order to prevent this from happening, tension will develop in the cervical extensors, including the upper trapezius, splenius, semispinalis, spinalis and sub-occipital groups, which attach to the base of the skull. The upper cervical segments including the base of the skull are extended, shortening the sub-occiptal muscles. This extension will allow the skull to remain somewhat level as it rests on the atlas, or the uppermost cervical vertebrae. The over-working of the upper trapezius muscle and lengthening and weakening of the middle and lower trapezius and the rhomboids will also contribute to early elevation of the scapula with shoulder motion. This will worsen the position of the glenohumeral joint and will further stress the rotator cuff. This example has been limited to the rectus abdominis. It is important to understand that single muscles are rarely the isolated culprits in postural distortions and biomechanical dysfunction. (An exception would be an acute specific muscle injury that has not healed correctly and has caused compensatory overloading in other areas.) Because muscles act synergistically and as agonists and antagonists, there is usually more than one contributor. There are also connections between muscles through tough fascial connective tissue, which help to transmit forces between tissues. These cases of dysfunction can be rooted in other parts of the body, as the musculoskeletal system functions as a whole. Not only will these faulty positions and compensatory biomechanics cause an athlete to move inefficiently. Over time they may lead to degenerative processes in the soft tissues and joints that will lead to further injury and impairment.
The neurological system also adapts to these changes, applying muscle memory, as it
controls the musculature. Training this system is essential in developing healthy
neurological pathways and muscle firing patterns. This is achieved through the methods
mentioned above – using medicine balls, balance boards and stability balls and
challenging the neuromuscular system. Any of the muscles mentioned above may be the source of dysfunctional patterns, but it will most likely be a combination of them that will be the cause. It is important to follow the entire kinetic chain when assessing and treating these conditions.
Cycling
Most cyclists focus on their hamstrings, quadriceps and gluteal muscles, and forget about
the importance of core stability. Consider how many hours the cyclist spends bent over in a flexed position on the aerobars, with no rotational or side bending motions. A strong core is needed to counterbalance these forces. With a focus on the core, a cyclist can generate more power and can sustain a higher level of intensity for longer periods. A stronger core also means less stress on the primary muscle movers and a delay in the build up of lactic acid. Even minor changes such as brake position can affect core stability. If the brake handle position is too low, the cyclist is forced to reach too far forward with their forearms. This reaching position forces the cyclist to raise their head forcing the pelvic girdle posterior. This position can cause a restriction in several key
muscles in the core, thus reducing performance. The ideal position for the forearms is to have the elbows bent and the forearms flattened out. In this position, the cyclist head drops into a more comfortable aerodynamic position, and the pelvis tilts forward. In this
position, the cyclist is able to use all the core muscles with improved efficiency.

Running
Now consider how a shortened rectus abdominis affects a tri-athletes performance during running. Although opinions about the ‘ideal running form’ vary greatly, most authorities will agree that the less energy that is expended, the more effective and efficient the running style will be.

When performing a biomechanical analysis, it is very common to see numerous
imbalances of which the athlete is completely unaware. By video taping an athlete during activity the practitioner can show and explain what is happening then correct it.
When analyzing a runner, some of the most common biomechanical faults looked
for are:
• Over-pronation (rolling in as arches collapse) in the feet – this can cause a series
of biomechanical imbalances from the foot up to the cervical spine.
• Excessive hip adduction – due to tight hip adductors and can cause increased load
in the lateral tissues such as the iliotibial band, tensor fascia lata and gluteus
medius.
• Lack of trunk rotation – due to restrictions in trunk rotators or shoulder extensors.

This can cause overload in the hip musculature, spinal joints, and other trunk
rotators.
• Lack of hip extension – caused by tight hip flexors restricting extension, and weak
gluteal muscles. This causes the extensors and rotators of the lumbar spine to
become overloaded in order to compensate for the lack of hip extension.
• Lack of shoulder extension – caused by restrictions in anterior shoulder muscles
or poor trunk rotation.

Educating yourself on how the core works will help to avoid injury, improve your athletic performance and increase training efficiency. Far too often people read the most popular book or take advice from someone who they think knows more than they do.
This cookie cutter approach does not take into account the persons specific needs and
goals. In my opinion anyone who participates in any sport or activity should have a
professional evaluate them for any weaknesses or poor movement patterns. I can’t tell
you how many patients have told me “It just started hurting I never did anything to it”. A
simple evaluation can save you from repetitive stress injuries.
Written by
Dr. Robert Inesta
Charles DeFrancesco
http://www.fitandfunctional.com

References:
1. McGill, S, Ultimate Back Fitness and Performance: Ontario. Wabuno Publishers. 2004.
2. Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG. Muscles: Testing and Function. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams
and Wilkins. 1993.
3. Runnersworld.com

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Rest for Better Results

Most people know that exercise and physical activity are beneficial to their health. But how much is too much? Many fail to take any time off from exercising and therefore they are not allowing their bodies any time for recovery. Too much exercise can be just as dangerous as not exercising at all! It is important to remember that exercise can prevent injuries, but it can also cause them! Rest and recovery is an essential part of any exercise program. In order to train more effectively, you need a recovery plan. This will have a significant impact on your fitness gains and sports performance.

During a workout, muscle fibers are damaged. When resistance is placed on a muscle through running, weight training, etc, the muscle develops tiny microscopic tears, which activate muscle building. The tears cause the formation of new muscle protein strands which increase the strength and size of the muscle. Additionally, the tears start the process of healing by creating new cells to heal the damaged tissue and relieve any soreness. This alters the homeostasis in the body, which creates stress. The greater the tear in the muscle, the more likely it is to have muscle soreness and an altered homeostatic state.

After exercise, recovery is essential to muscle and tissue repair and strength building. Muscles are repaired and rebuilt only during the recovery period. Without proper recovery, especially after a workout that is too strenuous or prolonged, the body stays in the altered homeostatic state for longer than it should, which may lead to injuries. A muscle needs anywhere from 24 to 48 hours to repair and rebuild, and working it again too soon leads to tissue breakdown instead of building.

Recovery should take place both during and after workouts. It is important to rest between weight sets or cardiovascular intervals as well as between workouts in the same week. For weight training programs, never work the same muscles groups two days in a row. Rest helps replenish your energy stores, which get depleted during workouts. People often don’t find the time to rest and relax, but it is one of the easiest things to do to promote recovery and repair. One easy way to recover faster is to design a smart workout routine in the first place. You will limit your progress and undermine your recovery with excessive exercise, heavy training at every session or a lack of rest days.

Stretching is another way to aid in the recovery process. It prevents the muscles from becoming knotted and helps improve flexibility. Additionally, it is important to remain hydrated to aid in muscle recovery and to keep heart rate and blood pressure stable. Water supports every metabolic function in your body and must replaced when lost through sweat. A lot of fluid can be lost during strenuous workouts and it needs to be replaced both during and after exercise. Endurance athletes who sweat for hours and lose large amounts of water especially need to replace their fluids for optimal performance and recovery.

Sleep is also extremely important. It is imperative to get between 7-9 hours of sleep per night to ensure growth hormones and cortisol are produced and balanced. GH is largely responsible for tissue growth and repair. Sleep also enhances protein synthesis, boosts immune function, and helps relax the nervous system. Optimal sleep is essential for anyone who exercises regularly.

The most important thing that you can do to improve fitness, prevent injury and speed up recovery is to listen to your body. If you feel tired or sore, take a break or rest. Your body will tell you what it needs if you pay attention to it, rather than ignore the warning signs. The best way to ensure you are training and resting optimally is to consult with a personal trainer to design an effective exercise program and help prevent you from overtraining.

Improving Your Golf Performance

Golf Analysis:

Your golf swing is all about proper body mechanics. A good golf swing requires full rotational capacity of nearly every joint involved and must be done – efficiently – easily – explosively – repeatedly. Many swing faults are directly attributable to poor joint mobility, resulting from soft-tissue restrictions.

A proper golf analysis will focus on the following:

  • Determining which structures are affected along the Golfers kinetic chain. We focus on more than just the chief area of restriction.
  • Identifying the antagonistic structures (opposing muscle groups) to those that have been identified as the primary structures causing the imbalance.
    Since function and performance is based upon balance and coordination, an opposing soft-tissue structure is always affected by restrictions in the primary structure.
  • Treating each soft-tissue dysfunction with the appropriate technique to restore full function to the affected structures.

The result is almost most always an improvement in Golf performance. Using this process has helped hundreds of Golfers achieve their goals and prevent numerous injuries from occurring.

Common swing faults occur due to tight shoulder, tightness in the hip joint, spinal injuries, and repetitive strain injuries. When shoulder rotation is restricted the body compensates with excessive spinal rotation. This can result in back injury because most people already lack flexibility in the spine. In addition, golfers will notice that they have difficulties in keeping their eyes on the ball and/or maintaining an optimal swing plane. This results in fat or thin shots. When the golfer attempts to compensate at the shoulder joint, the chances of a hook or slice increases. Tightness in the hip joint rotational muscles places additional strain on the rotational requirements of the shoulder or spine. Often a golfer will compensate by lifting up during the back swing and then chop down on the ball resulting in a fat shot. Wrist and elbow injuries often occur when the body does not have the capacity to effectively compensate at either the shoulder or spine. The wrists are then over-used to drive as well as decelerate the golf club. These swing faults are often easily corrected by addressing the physical restriction the golfer has in their body.

Stretching is often not enough to release these restrictions

Even individuals such as professional golfers who are constantly stretching find it difficult to release soft-tissue adhesions. This is why so many professional and amateur golfers are turning to Active Release Technique (ART), Graston, Acupuncture and stretching to release and remove these restrictions.

Often muscle groups will literally adhere to each other, preventing the sliding necessary for full mobility. During normal stretching, the first tissue that elongates may not be the scar tissue, but the normal healthy tissue. After the restriction has been removed an effective program of stretching will often be enough to stop the restrictions from returning.

Applying soft tissue techniques to golf related injuries

In order to effectively balance your muscles and remove joint restrictions, you must first identify your unique pattern of muscle imbalances. By utilizing a series of muscle balance and swing analysis tests,  the exact type, extent, and location of muscle restriction can be identified.  The use of ART treatments and follow-up stretches will help remove and resolve these restrictions, in addition to strengthening the muscles with weight training to prevent re-injury.

 

Written by:

Dr. Robert Inesta

Charles DeFrancesco

 

 

Osteoporosis & Exercise

Over 53 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with osteoporosis or are at risk for osteoporosis due to low bone mass.  Osteoporosis is defined as a disease which weakens the bones so they become fragile and break easily. It is especially prevalent in the bones of the hip, spine, and wrist. Often, osteoporosis is a “silent” disease because the person does not exhibit symptoms or knows he/she has it until a bone is broken or the vertebrae in the spine collapse.

While anyone is susceptible to osteoporosis, it is more common in older women, especially non-Hispanic, white women and Asian women. Other risk factors include being small and thin, having low bone density, taking certain medications, and/or having a family history of osteoporosis. Bone mass can be tested with a bone mineral test.

There are a few ways you can prevent osteoporosis and keep your bones strong, such as consuming a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, exercising, not smoking, and not drinking alcohol excessively. Falls are the number one cause of broken bones, so weight bearing exercise and balance are extremely important to prevent falls and to increase bone density. If bones become extremely fragile, fractures can also occur through normal daily activities, such as bending, lifting, coughing, or from minor bumps or stresses.

Exercise improves bone health, muscle strength, coordination, balance, and overall health, and it is vital for treating and preventing osteoporosis. Weight-bearing and strength training exercises are both recommended for peak bone mass because you are working against gravity. Weight-bearing exercises include weight training, hiking, jogging, walking, stair climbing, dancing, and tennis. They can be either low impact or high impact. Strength training is also known as resistance exercise, and it includes lifting weights, using bands and balls, and utilizing your own body weight. Yoga and pilates are also great options since they improve flexibility, balance, and strength, but certain positions will need to be avoided to avoid spinal injury.

Consult a doctor before beginning any type of exercise program, especially if you have osteoporosis. You may have to avoid bending, twisting, and flexing to protect your spine if your bone mass is low. Additionally, high-intensity exercises should be avoided to avoid fractures. It is important to stretch and strengthen the muscles properly and to improve posture. It is good idea to consult with a personal trainer to learn how to perform exercises properly and how to progress your activities and routines.

 

References:
The National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
https://www.nof.org/patients/fracturesfall-prevention/exercisesafe-movement/osteoporosis-exercise-for-strong-bones/ (National Osteoprosis Foundation)

Protein Powder 101

There are many different types & brands of protein powder on the market. It can be very difficult to decipher which is actually the best one to purchase. Protein powders are derived from various sources, such as whey, egg whites, soy, rice, kemp, pea, and flax. There are pros and cons to each type, depending on individual needs and preferences.

Whey is the most common and cheapest protein powder available on the market. Whey rotein is derived from milk. It is the liquid extracted from milk when cheese is made. Whey is a complete protein and contains all the essential amino acids. It is also rapidly digested and good for muscle synthesis. Whey is available three forms: whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, and whey protein hydrolysates. Concentrates usually have less protein and more carbohydrates and other components than isolates do. Isolates have been purified in an attempt to get to the purest form of whey protein. Whey hydrolysate has similar protein levels to isolates but the protein has been broken down into small peptide chains and amino acids, which makes it easy to absorb and hypoallergenic, since it denatures the protein. It also can be more expensive. Casein, which is also derived from milk, can also be used to make protein powders. Casein is more difficult to digest than whey, and therefore it takes a longer time for the body to utilize it.

Egg whites are another type of protein, which is especially good for those avoiding dairy, soy, or gluten. It is a high quality protein for leaning out and building muscle. Some people complain about the taste.

Soy protein is a complete protein that is easily digested but it is not digested very quickly. It is lactose and gluten free. Some brands use GMOs, so look on the label if you do not want to use genetically modified soy. Soy contains isoflavones, which may potentially reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Despite this benefit, some studies show that in excess, isoflavones can interact with estrogen and affect hormone levels. In men, this may cause a decrease in their testosterone levels.

Other good sources of vegetarian protein are from peas, rice, hemp and flax. Sometimes quinoa, millet, and lentils are added as well. They usually come in a blend since none are complete proteins on their own. However, they can be sold separately as well. For example, pea protein is deficient in cysteine, even though it has the same amount of protein per serving as whey. It is also free of cholesterol, fat and gluten. Rice protein is also deficient in some amino acids, especially lysine. However, it is gluten free and inexpensive. Hemp protein powder comes from hemp seeds and cannabis, though it does not contain a significant amount of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. Hemp is high in protein and omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. However, it is also very high in fat and calories. It can also be expensive, since growing hemp products in the US is illegal. There are many vegan powder blends on the market, which combine hemp, peas, rice, quinoa, etc. Vegan powders are dairy-free, gluten-free, and soy-free, and when combined, they are complete proteins. They can be a bit more expensive than whey products.

Besides the source of the protein you choose, it is also important to look at the QUALITY of the protein powder, which differs dramatically between brands. It is important to avoid a lot of artificial ingredients and fillers, so the fewer ingredients on the label the better. Consumers should also look at the calorie content as well as the types of flavors and sweeteners used in the product. You should also pick a brand that has been tested for quality and purity, so that you know that what is listed on the label is actually in the product. The supplement industry is not regulated by the FDA, but many are certified by GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice). This is a system to ensure that the products meet certain quality standards during its production and manufacturing.

No matter what you choose, it is important to remember that the body needs adequate protein. Protein plays a crucial role in the body and do most of the work in the cells. They are also required for the function, structure, and regulation of the tissues and organs in the body. So do your research, and buy a protein powder that fits your lifestyle, tastes, and needs.

 

The Truth of the Trend

Research has shown that training the nervous system with Olympic lifting, plyometrics, or any type of explosive high intensity training can be beneficial to the athlete when done correctly. There is much debate on the subject of CNS (central nervous system) fatigue and whether it is a real phenomenon or a false naming of adrenal fatigue, muscle fatigue, etc. Whether or not CNS fatigue truly exists or is being named correctly is beside the point. The fact is that explosive exercises with weight such a Olympic lifting place very high demands on all systems of the body and carry serious risk of injury if not learned and practiced properly.

Olympic weightlifting requires a high level of understanding and skill. Research suggests that the optimal number for training the nervous system is 1-3 repetitions with a rest period of 6 minutes between sets. In addition, ATP is only present for 6-8 seconds which is about 3-5 reps before needing at least 2-3 min of recovery. Once ATP runs out the lifts will become compromised because the muscle does not have the energy to elicit the contraction the nerve is demanding. Anything beyond said rep range starts to overload the joint because form is compromised. Since these methods are designed to tax the central nervous system it does not make sense to try to change them into strength and endurance movements for high reps. Despite the research and proven science, many mainstream programs will suggest doing a set of anywhere from 10-20 repetitions or even do as many reps as possible in a 30-60 second window. Using these methods for endurance is like telling a sprinter to sprint through marathons for training.

Another issue is that these methods require a very high level of motor control. Proper movement patterns need to be practiced without resistance at a low level until the client shows proficiency in the movement. Of all the lifting methods, Olympic lifting is the most difficult to master because of the required flexibility and motor control for explosive movements with heavy weights to get the max benefit. Olympic lifting is a sport in itself and can take years to learn. From our experience it takes the average person 4-6 months just to be able to get into the positions required to properly perform the movements. Once they can move it can take another 6-12 months to actually learn how to correctly do the lifts with weights. Olympic lifting is a professional sport yet everyone thinks they can do it without training. Even professional athletes should be cautious because the lifts were not designed for football, soccer or tennis, but instead for Olympic lifting.

Athletes should integrate Olympic style lifts into their strength and conditioning programs to reap the benefits of these movements but not duplicate them exactly. I suggest that most athletes train from the power position. This is called the hang (bar just below knees) since that is what most sports require. If a super elite athlete wants to learn the full lifts, it should be determined by a very high level coach.

Most courses that teach this method are 2-4 days, after which a certification is received and one is allowed to teach the lifts. Since we all agree Olympic lifting is just like basketball or any other pro sport, how is that possible? One cannot learn basketball in 2-4 days, let alone teach it, right? The answer seems obvious, yet people still spend millions on extreme home training videos and going to training facilities to do trendy high intensity programs that make no scientific sense.

The videos are the most dangerous, in our opinion. Any professional knows you cannot learn plyometrics by watching a video, and that the average person does not have the knowledge of the basic physical requirements and proper progressions. The science behind plyometrics is similar to Olympic lifting and should not be done for high repetitions either. The sad truth is that a majority of programs break the laws of proven science and safety, but their obvious flaws are overshadowed by attractive instructors, celebrity endorsements, extreme marketing tactics and industry politics. These companies are commendable, in a way, because the business intellect required to achieve such enormous revenue is impressive and there are some very good components in many of these programs. The main issues with these programs are that the parts that are wrong are so wrong it negates any of the positive aspects.

So the big question we get is  “why do they work if they are wrong?”

The fact is that if you do anything consistently and intensely while eating well you will obtain results. If you were to move bricks from one side of the yard to another for two hours a day with a 15 minute jog every 30 minutes for two months, you can be assured there will be fat loss and muscle growth. This is especially true for people who have never exercised or have done very little. So does that make it right? This sounds crazy but one of the best NFL receivers of all time, Jerry Rice, did just that growing up. He played a lot better when he started training like a football player instead of moving bricks.

Why doesn’t everyone get hurt? I know a guy who has been doing that stuff for years! Well, there are people who smoke until they are 90 and have no issues while others who never smoke die of lung cancer at 40 years old. In most cases smokers will develop health problems before 85, but there are always the exceptions. Everyone is different. There are countless variables that contribute to our physical constitutions and what our bodies can handle before we break down including genetics, nutrition and mental/emotional patterns, just to name a few. Some people are born athletes and can tolerate these programs because they have a natural ability to perform most plyometrics correctly and are strong and flexible enough to weather the storm of poor training.

Are all cookie cutter programs bad? No. There are some great instructors out there who can run programs that follow science and elicit even better results. This article is meant to educate you and serve as the WARNING LABEL. This is not meant as an attack on any particular company or program. It is simply meant to provide information based on common sense and science so that better results can be achieved safely.

 

 

References:

Bompa, T. (2005) Periodisation Training for sports. 2nd ed. Human Kinetics (taken from  http://www.brianmac.co.uk/cns.htm#ref)

Peinado AB, Rojo JJ, Calderón FJ, Maffulli N.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2014 Apr 24;6:17. doi: 10.1186/2052-1847-6-17. eCollection 2014. Review.

 

 

Why Your Workouts May Not Be Working

Have you been exercising & not seeing the results you’re expecting? Have you developed pain or made an already painful condition worse with exercises that were supposed to help? Have you been told by a trainer or physical therapist that your glutes are not firing or that you have poor balance and you just can’t seem to correct the problem?

These are very common issues that I hear about in my practice which can have multiple causes. The first thing to examine the program itself – what exercises are being done and are they even appropriate for the individual, based on their health history and present condition. I often see people doing exercises that they should definitely not be doing because they are harmful and will cause injury. Unfortunately, I also see many trainers and specialists prescribing these same exercises.

The second thing to examine is form to determine if the exercises are being done properly. A good exercise, if done incorrectly, can also be a bad exercise. Always be meticulous with form. The purpose of exercise should be to improve our health, whether the goal is increasing strength and endurance, rehabilitating tissue, or correcting movement patterns.

The above are very obvious reasons and should always be ruled out first. However, if the exercises are appropriate & being done with correct form but the issue is still present, there may be another less obvious culprit. This hidden hijacker of a good workout results could be fascial tension.

You may have heard of fascia recently, as it getting more attention due to research. Fascia is connective tissue that literally wraps and connects every structure in the body. To visualize this, imagine removing every organ, muscle, and bone. If we were to leave all the fascia intact, we would have a 3D outline of the entire body – a completely continuous web.

Fascia transmits energy and force, in addition to holding everything together. We often think of muscles contracting independently to perform an action. For example, flexing our elbow we attribute to the biceps and brachialis muscles. But in reality, it is much more than that. Tension is created throughout the entire arm and shoulder, into the trunk and down to the hand through fascial connection. Other muscles are also performing at different levels in order to stabilize the arm. So really, everything is working, but at different levels of intensity.

We often think of muscle contraction generating force in the tendons (which attach the muscles to bones) in order to produce a movement. Studies have recently demonstrated that only 70% of the generated force of a muscle contraction is transmitted to the tendons. The other 30% is transmitted outward to the fascia surrounding the muscle by way of attachments along its entire length. Because fascia is completely continuous throughout the body, this force is transmitted to other muscles and structures. This shows that when a muscle acts, it is doing much more than its attributed movement. It is communicating with and working in conjunction with other muscles along a line.

Fascia is also a sensory organ. Another recent discovery is that there there are more sensory nerve endings in the fascia than there are in the muscle. These nerve endings provide information to the brain and spinal cord about position, tension/stretch and pressure – a sense of where we are in space and what is happening to keep us there. Keep in mind that most of this is happening without us even realizing it.

Fascia is made up of different layers that need to slide over each other in order for movement to happen, and in order to have accurate information exchange with the nervous system. If there is restriction of this sliding, usually due to a densification of hyaluronic acid, the substance that lubricates the fascial layers, overall movement can become restricted. Muscle activity can become inhibited due to the lack of efficient communication through the nerve endings that live in the altered fascia.

The densifications causing this altered function can be a result of old trauma/injuries, surgeries, scars or repetitive strain. For example, an old ankle sprain that didn’t heal properly may subtly cause dysfunction either locally in the foot/ankle, or above in the knee, hip, pelvis or even in the shoulder on the opposite side of the body. These densifications may be difficult to detect because they are often found in different areas than where the symptoms manifest. In this case it would be helpful to be evaluated by a professional who understands this process to properly determine the dysfunction and correct it.

Fascial Manipulation is a diagnostic and treatment system developed by the Stecco family in Italy. It sees the body as an interconnected network of points along the fascia that make up different motion planes. The points are centers of coordination for underlying muscles. Interestingly, many of these are also acupuncture points. Densification, or dysfunction, in these points can alter the muscle activity. Fascial Manipulation practitioners find these areas of densification and remove them through a very specific, deep massage technique. When normal sliding is restored to these points, or centers of coordination, very often pain is relieved and muscles function much more effectively with less stress. It is worth noting that Fascial Manipulation has the most scientific research behind it than any other manual soft tissue technique.

Freed movement in the fascial planes leads to normal coordination of muscle activation. This can allow workout results to be more consistent with the targeted actions of exercise and desired goals. If you feel you are not getting the most out of your workout and you know you are doing the proper exercises with good form, consider a fascial evaluation.

Robert Inesta, DC, L.Ac, CCSP